Resources Blog Antigen Recognition and B Cell Activation: A Closer Look

Antigen Recognition and B Cell Activation: A Closer Look

Biointron 2024-03-06 Read time: 4 mins
Antibodies.jpg
Image credit: MDPI

Antigens are foreign molecules or molecular structures found on various invaders, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and even toxins. These foreign entities trigger an immune response by the body's defense system to eliminate them.

Antigens exhibit remarkable diversity in structure, ranging from complex proteins and polysaccharides (sugars) like those found on bacterial cell walls, to simpler molecules like lipids (fats) on the outer membrane of some viruses. Additionally, carbohydrates can also be recognized as antigens, particularly by B cells in collaboration with T cells. 

B cells, a type of lymphocyte, play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response by producing antibodies, specialized proteins designed to neutralize specific antigens. Before antibodies can be produced, B cells need to first recognize and bind to the antigen. This recognition is mediated by B cell receptors (BCRs), Y-shaped proteins embedded in the B cell's membrane.1,2 

Each B cell expresses a unique BCR, generated through a complex process called V(D)J recombination. This unique BCR has a specific antigen-binding site shaped like a pocket, known as the Fab fragment. The complementary shape of an antigen, also known as the epitope, can perfectly fit into this pocket, leading to a highly specific and tight binding. This specificity ensures that B cells only respond to specific antigens and not to healthy body molecules, preventing autoimmunity.3

While membrane-bound antigens on the surface of pathogens are common triggers for B cell activation, soluble antigens not bound to a membrane can also stimulate B cells, especially in collaboration with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) like macrophages and dendritic cells. APCs internalize soluble antigens, process them, and present fragments on their surface complexed with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. These MHC-antigen complexes can then be recognized by T helper cells, which provide additional signals to activate B cells, leading to a more robust immune response. 

Following antigen binding and potential T cell help, B cells undergo a complex process of activation. This activation involves a cascade of intracellular signaling pathways, ultimately leading to clonal expansion (rapid division) and differentiation into various types of cells: 

  • Plasma cells: These specialized cells dedicate their entire machinery to producing large quantities of antibodies tailored to neutralize the encountered antigen. 

  • Memory B cells: These long-lived cells remain dormant but retain the memory of the specific antigen. Upon future exposure to the same antigen, they can rapidly differentiate into plasma cells, providing long-term immunity.4

Therefore, antigen recognition and B cell activation are crucial steps in the humoral immune response, orchestrating the generation of specific antibodies to combat invading pathogens and maintain immune memory for future encounters. 


References

  1. Janeway Jr, C. A. (2001). Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease (5th ed.). Garland Science. 

  2. Batista, F. D., & Harwood, N. E. (2009). The who, how and where of antigen presentation to B cells. Nature Reviews Immunology, 9(1), 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2454

  3. Vos, Q., Lees, A., Wu, Z., Snapper, C. M., & Mond, J. J. (2000). B-cell activation by T-cell-independent type 2 antigens as an integral part of the humoral immune response to pathogenic microorganisms. Immunological Reviews, 176(1), 154-170. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-065X.2000.00607.x

  4. Hoffman, W., Lakkis, F. G., & Chalasani, G. (2016). B Cells, Antibodies, and More. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 11(1), 137-154. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.09430915


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