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Regulatory and Other Functions of Antibodies

Biointron 2024-02-20 Read time: 5 mins
Biological-Functions-of-Antibodies.jpg
Biological functions of antibodies. Image credit: DOI: 10.3390/molecules27248859

Antibodies are pivotal players in the immune system's defense against pathogens with the ability to recognize and bind to specific antigens for neutralization or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. However, the functions of antibodies extend far beyond simple pathogen neutralization. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, crossing biological barriers to provide passive immunity, and even in the development of allergic reactions. This article delves into these lesser-known but equally vital functions of antibodies, shedding light on their importance in maintaining health and combating diseases.

Immune Regulation

Antibodies play a vital role in the feedback mechanisms that regulate B cell activation and differentiation. Once a B cell receptor recognizes an antigen and the B cell is activated, it begins to produce antibodies specific to that antigen. These antibodies can then bind to the antigen, forming complexes that interact with various immune system components, including B cell receptors. This interaction sends signals that influence activation, affinity maturation, and differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (antibody producers) or memory B cells (for long-term immunity). This process is called antigen-dependent B cell selection and is crucial for refining the immune response, ensuring that the antibodies produced are increasingly specific and effective against the specific pathogens encountered. Moreover, it helps in maintaining long-term immunological memory, which provides protection against recurring infections by the same pathogen.1

In addition, antibodies help to regulate the immune system via immune homeostasis. This prevents both under-responses that leave us vulnerable to infection and over-responses that can lead to autoimmune diseases where the immune system attacks healthy tissues. Specifically, several types of antibodies contribute to this regulatory function:

  • Regulatory B cells (Bregs): Produce specific antibodies that suppress the activity of other immune cells, particularly T cells, dampening down overly aggressive immune responses. 

  • IgG4 antibodies: Bind to antigens on the surface of immune cells, preventing them from interacting with other target cells and contributing to inflammation. 

  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies: Bind to the antigen-binding sites of other antibodies, neutralizing their activity and preventing them from causing harm. 

Moreover, antibodies contribute to immune memory, enabling the immune system to mount a faster and more robust response to previously encountered pathogens. This reduces the severity of subsequent infections and helps prevent illness altogether.2

Crossing Barriers

Certain antibodies, such as IgG, can cross the placental barrier, playing a role in fetal protection. This process, known as transplacental antibody transfer, provides passive immunity to newborns, guarding them against infections in the early stages of life until their own immune system matures. However, maternal health, lifestyle factors, and placental function can influence the effectiveness of transplacental antibody transfer, and vaccinations during pregnancy can be necessary for providing further protection to newborns with vaccine-induced antibodies.3

Allergic Reactions

While antibodies typically protect us, a specific type called IgE plays a complex role in allergies, sometimes referred to as "hypersensitivity reactions." In individuals with allergies, the immune system misinterprets harmless substances, called allergens (e.g., pollen, pet dander), as threats. This leads to the production of IgE antibodies specific to the allergen. These IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, triggering a cascade of events. This involves the release of various inflammatory mediators, including histamine, and induces classic allergy symptoms like itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.4

Understanding these multifaceted functions of antibodies highlights their importance in maintaining health and reveals possibilities for novel therapeutic strategies. Ongoing research into the regulatory roles of antibodies and their involvement in allergies sheds light on the intricate workings of the immune system, offering promising avenues for advancements in personalized medicine, vaccine development, and targeted treatments for autoimmune diseases.


References:

  1. Meffre, E., Casellas, R., & Nussenzweig, M. C. (2000). Antibody regulation of B cell development. Nature Immunology, 1(5), 379-385. https://doi.org/10.1038/80816

  2. Abebe, E. C., Dejenie, T. A., Ayele, T. M., Baye, N. D., Teshome, A. A., & Muche, Z. T. (2021). The Role of Regulatory B Cells in Health and Diseases: A Systemic Review. Journal of Inflammation Research, 14, 75-84. https://doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S286426

  3. Palmeira, P., Quinello, C., Silveira-Lessa, A. L., Zago, C. A., & Carneiro-Sampaio, M. (2012). IgG Placental Transfer in Healthy and Pathological Pregnancies. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/985646

  4. Sutton, B. J., Davies, A. M., Bax, H. J., & Karagiannis, S. N. (2019). IgE Antibodies: From Structure to Function and Clinical Translation. Antibodies, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8010019

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