Resources Blog Antibody Engineering: Enhancing Efficacy and Reducing Immunogenicity

Antibody Engineering: Enhancing Efficacy and Reducing Immunogenicity

Biointron 2024-03-25 Read time: 5 mins
Modification of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAb) for clinical application
DOI: 10.32607/20758251-2009-1-1-32-50

Antibody engineering reshapes how antibodies, our body's natural defense mechanisms, are designed and utilized in medicine. The primary goals within this field are to enhance the efficacy of antibodies and reduce their immunogenicity—ensuring they are more effective and less likely to provoke adverse immune responses.

What is Antibody Engineering?

Antibody engineering refers to the modification of antibodies to improve their interaction with antigens, extend their half-life, reduce their immunogenicity, and tailor them for specific therapeutic applications. This discipline emerged from the need to create more effective therapeutic agents that can mimic or enhance the immune system's ability to fight diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

The journey of antibody engineering began in the 1970s with the development of monoclonal antibody technology. Over the decades, it has evolved from the production of murine antibodies to the creation of fully human antibodies, thanks to molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques. These advancements have paved the way for more sophisticated engineering strategies aimed at optimizing antibody function and safety.

Techniques in Antibody Engineering

Humanization

Humanization is a pivotal technique in antibody engineering, aimed at reducing the immunogenicity of murine antibodies for human therapeutic use. This process involves modifying the antibody to make it more similar to human antibodies, while retaining its ability to bind to the target antigen. Techniques such as CDR grafting and framework adjustment are commonly employed, resulting in antibodies that are less likely to be recognized as foreign by the human immune system. Examples of successful humanized antibodies include Trastuzumab and Enhertu, which have revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers.

Affinity Maturation

Affinity maturation, a natural process where the immune system refines antibody binding to antigens, is crucial for therapeutic efficacy. Scientists can mimic this process in the lab using techniques like phage display and yeast display. These techniques allow researchers to create vast libraries of antibody variants and then select those with improved binding characteristics.  This enhanced binding can significantly contribute to the success of antibody-based therapies.

Bispecific Antibodies

Bispecific antibodies are engineered to recognize and bind to two different antigens simultaneously. This unique capability makes them powerful tools in cancer therapy, where they can engage immune cells and target cells simultaneously, leading to more effective cell killing. While the development of bispecific antibodies initially presented significant challenges with stability and manufacturability, recent advancements in protein engineering and conjugation techniques are paving the way for a new generation of bispecific antibodies with improved stability and manufacturability, making them a promising avenue for the development of next-generation cancer therapies.

Importance of Antibody Engineering in Therapy

Antibody engineering has revolutionized therapeutic strategies, offering treatments that are highly specific, effective, and with fewer side effects. By reducing the immunogenicity of antibodies, patients experience fewer adverse reactions, enhancing the safety profile of antibody-based therapies. Moreover, engineered antibodies can be customized for personalized medicine, targeting specific pathogens or cancer cells unique to the individual.

The success of engineered antibodies in clinical use is evident in the numerous FDA-approved treatments available today. For instance, Blinatumomab, a bispecific murine antibody used in cancer immunotherapy, showcases the potential of engineering efforts to produce therapies with significant patient benefits. These successes underscore the transformative impact of antibody engineering on modern medicine.

At Biointron, we are dedicated to accelerating your antibody discovery, optimization, and production needs. Our team of experts can provide customized solutions that meet your specific research needs. Contact us to learn more about our services and how we can help accelerate your research and drug development projects.

Subscribe to our Blog

Recent Blog

Computational antibody methods schematic. DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbz095The development of therapeutic antibodies has been significantly enhanced by advancements in computational methods and artificial intelligence (AI). These technologies have streamlined the antibody discovery process, improving the abil

May 27, 2024
Blog

Welcometo Antibody Basics by Biointron,Part 8. In this episode, we’ll talk about therapeutics targeting cancer.What is cancer immunotherapy?Cancer immunotherapy leverages the body's immune system to fight cancer more selectively and effectively than traditional methods such as chemotherapy

May 24, 2024
Blog

The generation of an immune response to a vaccine. DOI: 10.1038/s41577-020-00479-7Vaccination is one of the most effective tools in preventing infectious diseases. At its core, the success of a vaccine hinges on its ability to induce a robust and lasting antibody response against a specific pathogen

May 22, 2024
Blog

Innovation orientation and goals for transforming CAR-T cell engineering. DOI: 10.1186/s13045-020-00910-5Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is a revolutionary cancer treatment in which engineered CARs redirect lymphocytes, typically T cells, to recognize and destroy cells expressing a sp

May 20, 2024
Blog

Our website uses cookies to improve your experience. Read our Privacy Policy to find out more.