Resources Blog What Are Antibody Mimetics?

What Are Antibody Mimetics?

Biointron 2024-06-07 Read time: 4 mins
Scaffolds.png
10.1038/nbt1127

Antibody mimetics, also known as non-immunoglobulin scaffolds, are engineered proteins designed to mimic the antigen-binding properties of antibodies. Unlike traditional antibodies, which are based on the immunoglobulin structure, antibody mimetics are derived from various protein scaffolds that provide a stable framework for presenting binding sites. These scaffolds include ankyrin repeats, knottins, affibodies, and DARPins (designed ankyrin repeat proteins). The choice of scaffold influences the stability, size, and binding characteristics of the mimetic. As an alternative to antibodies, they offer similar or superior binding capabilities while overcoming the limitations associated with traditional antibodies such as large size, complex structure, and susceptibility to degradation.

Engineering and Selection 

The development of antibody mimetics involves several key steps: 

  1. Scaffold Selection: Choosing an appropriate scaffold that offers the desired stability and binding characteristics. 

  2. Library Construction: Creating a diverse library of scaffold variants with randomized sequences in the binding regions. 

  3. Screening and Selection: Using techniques such as phage display, yeast display, or ribosome display to identify scaffold variants that bind specifically to the target antigen. 

  4. Optimization: Refining the selected candidates to enhance binding affinity, specificity, and stability through directed evolution or rational design. 

Types of Antibody Mimetics 

Several types of antibody mimetics have been developed, each with unique properties and applications: 

  • Affibodies are small proteins derived from the Z-domain of staphylococcal protein A. They are known for their high stability and ease of production in bacterial systems. Affibodies have been used in a variety of applications, including molecular imaging and targeted therapy. 

  • DARPins are based on ankyrin repeat proteins and are characterized by their high thermal stability and robust expression in different systems. DARPins have shown promise in cancer therapy and diagnostic imaging. 

  • Knottins, or cystine-knot proteins, are small peptides with a unique knotted structure that provides exceptional stability. They are often used in applications requiring high resistance to proteolysis, such as toxin neutralization and enzyme inhibition. 

  • Anticalins are engineered from lipocalins, a family of proteins that bind small molecules. They are particularly useful for targeting small, non-protein antigens and have been explored for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. 

Advantages of Antibody Mimetics 

Antibody mimetics offer several advantages over traditional antibodies: 

  • Stability: Enhanced thermal and chemical stability allows for use in harsh conditions where antibodies may degrade. 

  • Size: Smaller size enables better tissue penetration and faster clearance from the body, which is advantageous for imaging and therapeutic applications. 

  • Production: Simplified production in microbial systems reduces cost and increases scalability. 

  • Versatility: Ability to target a wide range of antigens, including those that are not accessible to traditional antibodies. 

Applications 

Antibody mimetics are being developed as therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Their small size and stability make them ideal for targeting tumors and crossing biological barriers. In diagnostic applications, antibody mimetics can be used for imaging and detection of biomarkers. Their high specificity and rapid clearance enhance the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Antibody mimetics also serve as valuable tools in research, enabling the study of protein interactions, signal transduction, and cellular processes with high precision and specificity. 

Future research is likely to focus on optimizing the properties of antibody mimetics, expanding their applications, and overcoming regulatory and market barriers. Advances in protein engineering, computational modeling, and high-throughput screening will play a pivotal role in the development of next-generation antibody mimetics. 

 

References:

  1. Binz, H. K., Amstutz, P., & Plückthun, A. (2005). Engineering novel binding proteins from nonimmunoglobulin domains. Nature Biotechnology, 23(10), 1257-1268. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1127

  2. Gebauer, M., & Skerra, A. (2009). Engineered protein scaffolds as next-generation antibody therapeutics. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 13(3), 245-255. 

  3. Löfblom, J., Feldwisch, J., Tolmachev, V., Carlsson, J., Ståhl, S., & Frejd, F. Y. (2010). Affibody molecules: engineered proteins for therapeutic, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. FEBS Letters, 584(12), 2670-2680. 

  4. Nygren, P.-Å., & Skerra, A. (2004). Binding proteins from alternative scaffolds. Journal of Immunological Methods, 290(1-2), 3-28. 


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