Resources Blog Antibody Engineering: From Bispecifics to Humanization

Antibody Engineering: From Bispecifics to Humanization

Biointron 2024-01-20 Read time: 3 mins
Image credit: DOI: 10.1016/S1016-8478(23)25245-0

Antibody engineering has made remarkable advancements since the invention of hybridoma technology in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein, leading to the creation of therapeutic agents that exhibit high specificity and reduced adverse effects.  


Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most common type of antibody found in blood circulation, is monospecific and recognizes only a single antigen, with the exception of IgG4. In contrast, bispecific antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to two different targets. This is useful as a therapeutic as it can be designed to redirect, for instance, immune cells such as T cells, to selectively engage and eliminate target tumor cells. In addition, bispecific antibodies can assist in the delivery of therapeutic payloads, such as toxins or drugs, to specific sites in the body.1

Fc engineering 

The antibody’s Fc region has been shown to mediate effector functions such as ADCC and CDC, which can significantly affect therapeutic effectiveness. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) occurs when antibody-opsonized target cells activate Fc gamma receptors on the surface of macrophages to induce phagocytosis. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) results from the C1q protein binding to the Fc region which are in turn bound to a cell surface antigen, thus inducing cell death. These Fc-dependent effector functions are continuously being fine-tuned to increase the potency of antibodies.2


The humanization of antibodies is a method to reduce the immunogenicity of antibodies from non-human species. It is typically used to develop monoclonal antibodies for human administration, by modifying protein sequences to increase similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans. At first, genetic engineering was used to generate chimeric antibodies, which contained human constant domains and as well as non-human variable domains to retain specificity. Humanized antibodies were then created by grafting antibody complementarity-determining regions from the non-human antibody onto a human variable region framework.3

At Biointron, we offer high-quality recombinant antibody production services that can help researchers and biotech companies develop antibody-based drugs for various diseases. Our team of experts can provide customized solutions that meet your specific research needs. Contact us to learn more about our services and how we can help accelerate your research and drug development projects.


  1. Yélamos, J. (2022). Current innovative engineered antibodies. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, 369, 1-43. 

  2. Moore, G. L., Chen, H., Karki, S., & A, G. (2010). Engineered Fc variant antibodies with enhanced ability to recruit complement and mediate effector functions. MAbs, 2(2), 181-189. 

  3. Waldmann H. (2019). Human Monoclonal Antibodies: The Benefits of Humanization. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1904, 1–10. 

Subscribe to our Blog

Recent Blog

Welcometo Antibody Basics by Biointron,Part 8. In this episode, we’ll talk about therapeutics targeting cancer.What is cancer immunotherapy?Cancer immunotherapy leverages the body's immune system to fight cancer more selectively and effectively than traditional methods such as chemotherapy

May 24, 2024

The generation of an immune response to a vaccine. DOI: 10.1038/s41577-020-00479-7Vaccination is one of the most effective tools in preventing infectious diseases. At its core, the success of a vaccine hinges on its ability to induce a robust and lasting antibody response against a specific pathogen

May 22, 2024

Innovation orientation and goals for transforming CAR-T cell engineering. DOI: 10.1186/s13045-020-00910-5Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is a revolutionary cancer treatment in which engineered CARs redirect lymphocytes, typically T cells, to recognize and destroy cells expressing a sp

May 20, 2024

The 20th Annual PEGS Boston Summit 2024 was held in Boston, MA from May 13-17. During the event, industry experts from across the world gathered to share the latest research in advancements in drug development, protein and antibody engineering, immunotherapy, immunogenicity, expression platforms, mu

May 18, 2024

Our website uses cookies to improve your experience. Read our Privacy Policy to find out more.